What are Parts of Speech and its Types?

Parts of Speech

When we talk about the English language, some words seem confusing because of their multiple meanings. Depending on the circumstances, a single word can have multiple meanings in a part of speech. So, we take the help of parts of speech to easily understand and analyse their meaning. In terms of traditional English grammar, parts of speech mean the category of words with similar grammatical properties. 

In modern linguistics, parts of speech are often replaced with syntactic categories or word classes. So, when we write a sentence in English, the parts of speech are required to make it a meaningful sentence or speech. Parts of speech are categorised into eight parts: Noun, Verb, Pronoun, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection.

Below, in this article, we have discussed the eight parts of speech in detail.

1. Nouns

Nouns mean the name of a place, animal, thing, person, etc. It is the first part of speech taught in English grammar. While writing a sentence, we use a nouns as it has different significance in a particular sentence. A noun can act as an indirect object, the subject, a direct object, an object complement and a subject complement. It can also function as verbs and adjectives.

The noun can be broadly classified into Proper nouns, common nouns, plural nouns, singular nouns, collective nouns, uncountable nouns, abstract nouns and concrete nouns.

2. Pronouns

A pronoun is a word used as the substitute for a noun. It is used in a sentence to avoid repeated use of a noun. In a sentence, it can be used as singular or plural forms. While writing a sentence, the verb used should be as per the particular form of pronoun used.

Pronouns can be divided into different parts according to their function: Relative Pronouns Possessive Pronouns, Reflexive Pronouns, Demonstrative Pronouns, Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns, Personal Pronouns, Subject Pronouns, Object Pronouns, Reciprocal Pronouns, Intensive Pronouns.

3. Adjectives

An adjective means a word that describes the noun. In a sentence, an adjective highlights the functions or attributes of the noun. An adjective can be broadly classified into Adjectives of Quality, Adjectives of Quantity, Adjectives of Number, Demonstrative Adjectives, Distributive Adjectives, Interrogative Adjectives, Possessive Adjectives, Emphasising Adjectives, Proper Adjectives, Exclamatory Adjectives.

4. Verbs

A verb is used to describe what a noun is doing. It can also be termed a group of words expressing a state or an action.

5. Adverbs

An adverb is a word that gives more information about an adjective, a verb, another adverb, or sometimes the complete sentence. Using an adverb in a sentence makes it better, more descriptive, and more exciting.

6. Prepositions

In English, prepositions describe the connection between a noun or pronoun to something. When we use a preposition, we must have the verb and subject before, followed by a noun. Avoid following a preposition with a verb.

7. Conjunctions

Conjunctions mean a word or a group of words connecting clauses, two or more words, sentences and phrases. Conjunctions are called the joining words. The conjunctions words are segregated into four types – Coordinating Conjunction Words, Subordinating Conjunction Words, Correlative conjunction Words, Conjunctive Adverbs.

8. Articles

A pear. The brick house. An exciting experience. These bolded words are known as articles. Like nouns, articles come in two flavours: definite articles and indefinite articles. And just like the two types of nouns, the type of article you use depends on how specific you need to be about the thing you’re discussing.

So, we can conclude the article by stating that it is necessary to understand the eight parts of speech to analyse every word’s meaning. If you know the eight parts of speech well, you can easily rectify a grammatical mistake in a sentence. You can also cross-check other errors like a misused pronoun, a run-on sentence or an issue of the verb agreement.

By Michael Caine

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